MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following statements about the Domain Bacteria is TRUE? A) Bacteria are able to increase their genetic variability by reproducing sexually. B) Bacteria are multicellular microbes. C) Chloroplasts are found in photosynthetic bacteria. D) Bacteria lack membrane-bound organelles. E) Bacterial endospores are fragile structures that are easily destroyed. 2) In bacteria, the small, circular pieces of DNA that are located outside the chromosome are called A) flagella. B) bacteriophages. C) sex pili. D) plasmids. E) endospores. 3) The mutations that improve the survival and reproduction of organisms, and thus contribute to the evolution of species, arise rapidly in prokaryotes due to their A) rapid rates of cell division. B) anaerobic metabolism. C) sexual reproduction. D) cell wall composition. E) absence of a nucleus. 4) The use of bacteria to break down pollutants is referred to as A) nitrogen-fixation. B) binary fission. C) biofixation. D) bioremediation. E) biosynthesis. 5) Disease-causing bacteria are called A) Archaea. B) cyanobacteria. C) pathogens. D) protozoa. E) viroids. 6) Which Protist causes a sexually transmitted disease? A) Trichomonas B) Trypanosoma C) Giardia D) Plasmodium E) Pfiesteria 7) Which of the following is FALSE? A) Viruses are smaller than bacteria. B) Viruses are not living organisms. C) Antibiotics cannot prevent or treat viral diseases. D) The genetic material of viruses is not contained in a nucleus. E) Viruses are classified in the domain Archaea. 8) A virus basically consists of A) RNA or DNA and a membrane. B) enzymes and a protein coat. C) RNA or DNA and enzymes. D) RNA or DNA and a protein coat. E) proteins and a cell membrane. 9) Viroids A) attack bacteria. B) are infectious pieces of DNA enclosed in a protein coat. C) are infectious chains of amino acids. D) are infectious pieces of RNA. E) have a plasma membrane. 10) Are viruses alive or are they just biologically active chemicals? Explain your reasoning. TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false. 11) The Kingdom Protista is a group that can best be defined as “any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus.” True or False? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 12) Phytoplankton are very important to the aquatic ecosystems because they A) produce glucose. B) produce oxygen. C) absorb carbon dioxide. D) All of the above are true. E) None of the above are true. 13) Individuals of which protist group can grow hundreds of feet long, and almost half a foot per day? A) brown algae B) cyanobacteria C) slime molds D) phytoplankton E) water molds 14) Which of the following is considered to be most closely related to the plants? A) green algae B) slime molds C) diatoms D) brown algae E) euglenids SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 15) What would life on Earth be like today, had eukaryotic protists not evolved? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 16) Fungal hyphae usually are A) diploid. B) haploid. c. triploid d. n + n 17) The haploid, single-celled product of mitosis is A) sporophyte B) gametophyte C) zygote D) spore E) gamete 18) Claviceps purpurea is an organism from phylum ________. It infects rye plants and produces toxins (including LSD) that can produce convulsions, hallucinations, and death if consumed by a person. A) Ascomycota B) Chytriiomycota C) Deuteromycota D) Zygomycota E) Basidiomycota 19) If a strong fungicide is released and eliminates all the fungi in an ecosystem, which of the following is likely to happen? A) an accumulation of dead and discarded plant and animal tissues B) increased rate of photosynthesis C) faster breakdown of leaf litter D) improved soil fertility E) improved growth of plant species 20) A gametophyte is A) haploid. B) diploid. C) triploid. D) tetraploid. E) unable to survive. 21) The first cell after fertilization is the A) sporophyte. B) spore. C) zygote. D) seed. E) embryo. 22) Bryophytes A) are mosses and liverworts. B) have poorly developed conducting tissues. C) lack true roots and leaves. D) A and B E) all of the above 23) Ginkgoes are classified as a/an A) bryophyte. B) gymnosperm. C) seedless vascular plant. D) angiosperm. SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 24) Explain the difference between an angiosperm seed and a gymnosperm seed. 25) If motility is considered a characteristic of animals, why are stationary creatures like sponges and crinoids still considered to be animals? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 26) Between the organs and the body wall, complex animals have a body cavity called a A) cnidarian. B) coelom. C) mesoderm. D) thorax. E) mesoglea. 27) Which of the following characteristics is associated with all animals that are bilaterally symmetrical at some point in the life cycle? A) coelom B) mesoderm C) cephalization D) lack of organs E) gastrovascular cavity 28) Segmentation is important in the evolution of animals because A) it allows them to be bigger. B) it increases the number of tissue layers present. C) it allows for specialization of function. D) A and B E) B and C 29) How can flatworms survive without a respiratory system? A) They are flat, allowing diffusion of gases directly to and from cells. B) They are small, allowing diffusion of gases directly to and from cells. C) They are not very metabolically active, and there is no need for a more efficient means of gas exchange. D) They have a thin, moist covering that facilitates gas exchange. E) All of these are true. 30) The taxonomic group containing the largest and most intelligent invertebrates is A) Aves. B) Cephalopoda. C) Uniramia. D) Gastropoda. E) Chordata. 31) Which of the following phyla contains animals that reproduce asexually? A) Platyhelminthes B) Nematoda C) Mollusca D) Cnidaria E) Annelida 32) The leeches used by doctors to prevent blood clotting and stimulate blood vessel growth in patients recovering from reconstructive surgery are members of the phylum A) Cnidaria. B) Platyhelminthes. C) Annelida. D) Nematoda. E) Arthropoda. 33) All chordates have ________. A) pharyngeal gill slits B) bilateral symmetry C) a fully lined body cavity D) a dorsal, hollow nerve cord E) all of the above 34) Which of the following features do humans share with other chordates? A) Humans have a nerve cord. B) Humans develop a tail in early development. C) Humans develop a notochord in early development. D) Humans develop gill slits in early development. E) Humans have all of these features. 35) Mammals have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT A) mammary glands. B) hair. C) lungs. D) a four-chambered heart. E) All of the above are mammalian characteristics. 36) A fish with fins containing rod-shaped bones surrounded by muscle is a(n) A) hagfish. B) lobe-finned fish. C) lamprey. D) shark. E) ray-finned fish. 37) Monotremes differ from other mammals in that they A) have nipples. B) have hair. C) lay eggs. D) have a four-chambered heart. E) do not produce milk. 38) ________ are the mammals with the most number of species. A) Bats B) Rodents C) Primates D) Whales E) Marsupials 39) After eating at the new Mexican restaurant in town, you develop a mild case of food poisoning. Consequently, you never go back there again to eat. This is an example of A) trial and error learning. B) habituation. C) operant conditioning. D) insight learning. 40) Innate animal behavior is A) nonadaptive. B) learned. C) not under genetic control. D) instinctive. E) both learned and instinctive. 41) A decline in response to a harmless, repeated stimulus is called A) imprinting. B) a sensitive period. C) insight learning. D) instinctive behavior. E) habituation. 42) A worm learns to associate a flash of light with an electric shock by A) operant conditioning. B) insight learning. C) imprinting. D) habituation. E) trial and error learning. 43) Normal fruit fly larvae move away from their food after eating. However, some larvae that were subjected to X-rays remain near or in their food after eating. There is a consistent difference in the DNA of these two types of larvae. What can be concluded about this behavior? A) It appears to have a genetic component but is altered by experience. B) It appears to be entirely learned. C) It has a clear genetic component. D) Nothing can be concluded about this behavior from the information provided. 44) What advantage does sound communication have over visual communication? A) It is more quickly perceived. B) It uses less energy. C) It is not as likely to attract predators. D) It can communicate better the degree of an animal’s readiness for a particular behavior. E) It can be transmitted over distances even when physical barriers exist. 45) All the following are pheromones EXCEPT A) sex attractants produced by Japanese beetles. B) light emitted by fireflies. C) queen substance produced by honeybees. D) urine used by wolves to mark territories. E) trail substances produced by ants. 46) Territoriality A) results in every individual in a population successfully breeding. B) decreases aggression within a population. C) increases the size of a population. D) All are correct. E) B and C are correct. 47) Human facial expressions in response to various emotions A) vary according to race. B) vary tremendously from culture to culture. C) are remarkably similar among different cultures. D) vary according to age. E) vary according to sex. 48) Studies of identical human twins have shown that A) they exhibit vastly different behavioral traits if raised in different environments. B) they do not live as long as fraternal twins live. C) their genes appear to have a great deal of influence on their behavior. D) they are no more alike than are fraternal twins. E) behavior does not depend on the types of genes present. 49) A hungry newborn human infant, touched on the side of her mouth, will turn her head and attempt to suckle. This example of behavior is A) not under genetic control. B) nonadaptive. C) instinctive. D) learned. E) a combination of all the above choices. 50) Behaviors that we call “play” A) are only observed in humans. B) never occur in adults. C) can be dangerous. D) cannot be adaptive.