Students Name

Institution of Affiliation

Course Title


The Constitution

The constitution is one of the highest symbols of unity that acts to protect the citizens of a country. The constitution was set up to make the new government strong enough such that it could be able to promote commerce and as well protect the properties of the United States citizens. The constitution also is responsible for the prevention of the threats that gets imposed by the excessive democracy, thereby regulating the abuse of democracy and its meaning. In encouraging the popular consent of the constitution, the House of Representatives is designed such that it is directly responsible to the people while the Senate against the potential for the excessive in the house. The United States Constitution provides a direct popular election of the representatives besides the protection of its citizens’ rights and liberties. The constitution grants the Congress important and influential powers while any power not enumerated in the texts is reserved for the States. The Constitution was designed to institute a presidency with energy capable of making timely and decisive actions in regards to the public interests. The framers of the constitution established the Supreme Court that would be responsible for the nationalizing the governmental powers as well as checking the radical democratic impulses while at the same time guiding against the potential interference with the liberty and the property of the new national government itself.

The framers’ concerns are addressed by the various provisions of the constitution of national unity and power including the clause for the promotion of reciprocity among the state. The amendment of the constitution is not an easy process as the procedures for the amendment found in Article V are so difficult and difficult. Among the first ten amendments to the constitution included the adoption of the bill of rights in the year 1791. The principle of separation of powers in the constitution guards against possible misuse of power basing it on Montesquieu’s theory that power must be used to balance power. The balancing of power is overseen through devising a system of two sovereigns to which include the states and the central government.

The rights of criminally accused

Just like every other individual is entitled to the rights and freedoms in the constitution, the same applies to the criminally accused individuals. The fourth, fifth, sixth as well as the eighth amendments are the essence of the due process of the law stipulating the rights of every citizen against arbitrary actions by the national as well as the states governments. The core purpose of the due process is the leveling of the playing field between the accused person and the all-powerful state and thereby defining the limits of the government’s action against the personal liberty of every citizen. According to the American traditions, it is far worse to convict an innocent person than setting a guilty person free, to which the judicial systems hold the values.

The fourth amendment of the constitution protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, to which controversies have been raised against the issue regarding the drug-related searches, the DNA evidence as well as the government surveillance. The Fifth Amendment requires the grand of the jury for the majority of for the majority of the crimes, protecting against double jeopardy and provides for the section stipulating that one cannot testify by force against oneself. The other fundamental clause of the fifth regards the takings clause to which extends to each citizen protection against the taking of private property without just compensation. The purpose of the clause is to assert limits on the powers of the eminent domain through procedures that require the showing of a public purpose and the provision of the payments that are fair in the event of seizure of a person’s property. The sixth amendment requires a speedy trial to the accused as well as the right to witnesses and counsel. The eighth amendment prohibits on the cruel and the unusual punishment, with the possession of a significant challenge in the interpretation in that what is considered cruel and unusual varies from culture to culture as well as from generation to another.

The media, government and public opinion

There are important forces that contribute to the shaping of the opinions in the marketplace of ideas, and they include the government, the news media as well as the private groups. The effect on the public opinion can be limited despite the efforts of all the governments to try to influence, manipulate or even manage the citizens’ beliefs. Majority of the ideas that happen to become more prominent in the political life are mostly developed and even spread by the economic and the political groups to which search for issues responsible for the advancing their cause. The media is regarded as the opinion maker through their potential impact of interpretation of the events. The relationship between the public opinion and the government policy his dynamic as the policy responds to the opinion and the opinions tend to shift based on the new government policies. More affluent and educated citizens may have a disproportionate influence over politics and the public policies decision due to their tendency to vote at higher rates and therefore are more likely to contribute money to the political campaigns.

In measuring the public opinion, the politicians and the public officials make extensive use of the public opinion polls which aids them in making decisions. For a political survey to be an accurate representation of the people, appropriate sampling method, sufficient sample size and the avoidance of the selection bias should be emphasized. Big data and the social media offer new ways of measuring public opinions on a mass scale. The pollsters are capable of inferring the opinions based on the online trend, and both parties maintain massive databases that track the activities from voting behavior to consumer preferences.

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