sexual transmitted infections (STIs)

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Post STD

Some of the most common sexual transmitted infections (STIs) diagnosed in the United States include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and genital herpes (Buttaro, Trybulski, Bailey, & Sandberg-Cook, 2013).  STIs are most commonly seen in adolescent and young adult men and women due to increased likelihood of participating in risky sexual behaviors of having multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex.  Transmission of STIs have a higher incidence of being transmitted from vaginal and anal intercourse, rather than oral contact (Buttaro et al., 2013).
Chlamydia can often be asymptomatic, but when presenting it will produce yellowish green endocervical mucous, cervical ectopy/edema in women and dysuria, itching, and purulent mucous like discharge in men (Buttaro et al., 2013).  The pathogen involved is the parasitic organism Chlamydia trachomatis and primary treatments involve azithromycin and doxycycline (Buttaro et al., 2013).  Potential sequels from chlamydia include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), perihepatitis, Reiter’s syndrome, chronic conjunctivitis, chronic pelvic pain, infant infection, and epididymitis (Buttaro et al., 2013).
Gonorrhea can also be asymptomatic, but when visible can present as purulent urethral discharge, dysuria, pruritus, anorectal burning, skin lesions, dysuria, leukorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, cervical motion tenderness, vaginal discharge, and pharyngeal edema or erythema (Buttaro et al., 2013).  The pathogen responsible the gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae and treatment includes ceftriaxone, cefixime, cephalosporin with azithromycin or doxycycline (Buttaro et al., 2013).  Potential secondary causes of gonorrhea include prostatitis, epididymitis, cystitis, PID, disseminated gonorrhea, and/or gonococcal conjunctivitis (Buttaro et al., 2013).
Genital herpes is another common STI and can present as a primary infection with vesicular lesions on the penis shaft, glans, urethra, and rectum of men, and on the vulva, vagina, anus, and cervix of women (Buttaro et al., 2013).  Recurrent genital herpes present with pain, itching, burning, and tingling vesicles and superficial ulcers (Buttaro et al., 2013).
Integration of knowledge obtained from evidence based practice will promote holistic nursing to improve health and safety of patients with STIs, as well as the community.  The use of evidence based practice enables the healthcare team to provide the most current treatment regimen and medication to safely and effectively control the outbreak and/or prevent the spread of the infection.  Evidence based practice will also be used to educate the patient on side effects to monitor for, how to prevent the spread of the infection on to other people, how and when to medicate, as well as, if and when to return for a follow up examination.
Educate on medication, preventing spread of STI, consultation, educate on possible results from STI’s, layman terms, up to date evidence based practice.
References
Buttaro, T., Trybulski, J., Bailey, P., & Sandberg-Cook, J.  (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby

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