RS 510 RESEARCH I
Instructions: Read the posted article and answer the questions below.
Please email your completed MSWord document to me before midnight on 11/08/15.
Answer the questions as fully as possible.
“Yes”-only or “No”-only answers are unacceptable and will be marked as incorrect.
1. Title – Is the title clear? Does it contain the population and the variables? Is the length appropriate? Are there any extraneous or unnecessary words?
2. Researcher Qualifications – Are you able to determine the researchers’ educational and research qualifications to conduct the study? Three of the seven do not have “RN” after their names. What disciplines do you think these three individuals represent and what roles did they have in the study? Do you think one of them might have expertise in statistics? Was any funding obtained for this study?
3. Abstract – Is the length appropriate? What elements of the study (Purpose, Methods, Major Findings, etc.) are contained in the abstract?
4. Introduction – Does the Introduction present pertinent information about the study problem? Is the significance of the research clearly identified? What components of the study are contained in this section of the report? Is appropriate background information presented?
5. Purpose – Is the purpose of the study made clear? Is the population identified? Are the major study variables included? The second page has a section titled “Specific Aims.” How are these “aims” different from the study purpose?
6. Review of the Literature – Notice the section labeled “Review of the Literature and Significance.” Is this the only location of literature sources? Are the literature sources pertinent to the study? Are direct quotes or paraphrases used? Are you able to determine if primary sources have been cited? What are the most recent and oldest references cited? The article was published in 2010; would you expect some references from 2008 and 2009 (notice the date of acceptance for publication).
7. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework – This article contains a clearly labeled theoretical framework section. Is the framework from nursing or another discipline? Does the framework seem appropriate for the study?
8. Assumptions – Can you identify at least three assumptions made by the researchers (beliefs or assertions that were not documented from literature sources). There are at least six.
9. Limitations – What are some of the study limitations identified by the researchers? What do you think is the greatest weakness of this study?
10. Definition of Terms – Determine what variables needed to be defined and then search for the definitions provided by the researchers. Are both conceptual and operational definitions provided for the main study variables? Would you be able to replicate the study based on the definitions provided?
11. Research Design – The design section clearly lists the study as a “retrospective study design.” What makes this design “retrospective”? Do you believe the design could be classified as any other type? How were students assigned to the two simulation groups? Was random assignment used?
12. Setting – The setting was identified as “a school of nursing at a large, research-intensive university in the northeastern United States.” Is this description vague enough to prevent the identification of the setting? Do you think the study might have been conducted at the university where four of the nurse researchers were employed?
13. Population and Sample – Are the target population and accessible populations identified? Is the sample clearly identified? What type of sampling method was used to select the sample? Does the sample size seem adequate? Was permission to conduct the study obtained from the appropriate authorities? Were students’ rights protected?
14. Data Collection – Can you find information to answer the following five questions about data collection in this study: Who collected the data? When were the data collected? Where were the data collected? What data were collected? How were the data collected? What type of instrument was used to collect data? How were reliability and validity of the instrument assessed?
15. Analysis of Data – Are the statistical findings presented clearly? What types of statistics were used to present the data? Were demographic statistics presented on the sample? What statistic was used to present the amount of errors made by students?
16. Discussion of Findings – Were additional literature sources cited in this section? Were the findings discussed in regard to other studies in the literature? Were the findings related back to the theoretical framework?
17. Conclusions – A “Conclusions” section was included in the article. Were you able to pick out a conclusion or conclusions in this section that was/were based on the study findings? Formulate a conclusion that is based on a comparison of error rates for the two simulation groups.
18. Implications – Identify the implications of this study? Do you think this study has broad implications for many areas of nursing, such as nursing education, nursing practice, nursing administration?
19. Recommendations – What recommendations were made by the researchers? Were recommendations found in one location in the article? Were study limitations considered in the recommendations made by the researchers? Do you think it would be feasible to use eye-tracking devices, as recommended by the researchers, to determine errors made by students? Are there other recommendations that you think could have been made by the researchers?
20. Other Considerations – What was the “lag time” for publication of this article? Was the article easy to read and understand? Was the use of technical terms limited? Were the tables and figures appropriate? Did you discover any typographical errors? Were the references cited in the article also listed on the reference page? Were references cited complete in APA format? Are there additional comments that you would like to make concerning this article? Would you recommend this article to a colleague?
Henneman, E. A., Roche, J. P., Fisher, D. L., Cunningham, H., Reilly, C. A., Nathanson, B. H., & Henneman, P. L. (2010). Error identification and recovery by student nurses using human patient simulation: Opportunity to improve patient safety. Applied Nursing Research, 23(1), 11-21.
The title of the article was clear. The readers can understand about the issue of error identification and recovery through human patient simulation. The title contains the population and the variables including the student nurses and the issue of error identification and improving patient safety. The length is appropriate in delivering the subject, and it does not contain unnecessary words.
2. Researcher Qualifications
From the article, I can be able to determine the researchers’ educational and research qualifications involved in performing the study from their initials such as RN, Ph.D., MD, and MS. The three authors who did not have RN in their initials could represent academic scholars and health care managers. The three persons played a critical role in offering management and representing public ideas on the research question. I think one of them this have expertise in statistics due to their managerial roles and knowledge in academics. There was no funding sourced for the study.
I think the length of the abstract is appropriate. It was able to include the various elements of the study including the purpose, methods, the major finding, and future recommendations. The elements are critical in the structure of the abstract to guide the readers.
The introduction section can present significant information about the study problem of medical errors. The significance of the research is clearly identified, as critical in promoting patient safety. Some of the study included in the introduction section includes the purpose of the study, specific aims, the review of the literature and importance, and the theoretical framework. I see that all the appropriate background information was well presented.
The purpose of the study is made clear in the third paragraph of the introduction section. It also identifies the population clearly as the student nurses who offer commit errors. The major study variables were also included. The aims of the study are different from the study purpose as they present the specific purposes to be addressed. On the other hand, the study purpose provides an overview purpose of conducting the study.
6. Review of the Literature
The review of the literature is not the only location of the literature sources. Literature sources are included in other section of the research paper including the theoretical framework section. The literature sources are important to the study in providing a strong framework and past research findings to shape the research findings of the study. There are no direct quotes, but paraphrases were included. The oldest references cited are Bersky, Krawczak, & Kumar (1998). The most recent references were cited were in 2007. It was no possible to have articles from 2008 and 2009 as the study was published in 2008.
7. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
The theoretical framework included in the research was the nursing discipline. The framework also seems to be appropriate for the research study, as it indicates the role of the nurses in recovering the errors and preventing such events in future.
Some of the assumptions made by the researchers in the study include that confirmation of patient identification was critical in promoting the safe administration of medication, coordination and communication were critical in reducing adverse patient outcomes, and lastly, safety mechanism was critical in preventing medical errors among the patients.
The study limitations identified by the researchers include the threats of internal, external, and construct validity. The greatness weakness of the research study is the validity construct in the examination of the potential errors in promoting simulation.
10. Definition of Terms
The variables that needed to be defined include the clinical simulation experience, medical error, and the categories of rule-based errors. The researchers provided comprehensive definitions of the identified variables. I observed that both the conceptual and operational definitions provided for main study variables. Largely, I would replicate the study based on the definitions offered.
11. Research Design
The research design is retrospective study research because it is conducted among individuals exposed to common factors to research about the key issues. I do not believe the research design would be classified as another type of research design. The students were assigned to the two simulation groups based on their prior experiences and their personal preference. Random assignment was not used in the research study.
I think the description is not vague and it is relevant in preventing the identification of the setting. I think it would have been appropriate in conducting the study at the university where four of the nurses were employed. The setting would offer a more practical setup to address the key issues.
13. Population and Sample
The target population and accessible population were identified as the student nurses. The sample was clearly identified as 50 senior nursing students. The sampling method was selected conveniently. The sample size of 50 participants seems adequate for the study. Permission was obtained from University institutional review board which is the appropriate authority with authority to permit such a study. The student’s rights were protected as they were to sign an informed consent form.
14. Data Collection
It is not possible to answer the five questions about the collection of data for the study. The data collection from the simulation exercises was well summarized. The data collection section does not provide adequate details to respond to all the five questions. I think the researchers provided additional information about data collection.
15. Analysis of Data
The statistical findings were presented clearly with the inferences such as chi-square tests and the alpha results. The inferential statistics was the relevant type of statistics used to present data in the research study. The mean averages were critical statistics in presenting the amount of errors made by the students.
16. Discussion of Findings
The discussion section included additional literature sources. The findings were discussed other studies in the literature. It was also based on the theoretical framework summarized in the article.
I was able to pick out the conclusions easily in the conclusion that were based on the findings in . In a comparison of the two simulation groups, it is appropriate to conclude that the main threat to patient safety is the lack of basic safety guidelines such as the accuracy of patient identification.
The implication of this research study was to provide relevant insights on the sources of errors, prevention of errors as well as recovery strategies. I think the study broad implications in promoting major areas in nursing including nursing education, nursing practice, and nursing administration. The outcomes would propose relevant measures to improve the nursing practice and administration of the nursing profession.
The recommendations made by the researchers included that it is recommendable to use innovative technologies in addressing the issue of errors among the student nurses. I think the use of eye tracking devices would be a feasible to determine the errors conducted by the student nurses. It provides data about the types and frequency of errors conducted by the student nurses.
20. Other considerations
The lag time for publication of the article was around three years. The article was easy to read and understand due to the proper structure and subtopics in the article. The use of technical terms was also largely limited. The table and figures were highly appropriate in providing a diagrammatical view of the research. I did not discover any typographical errors in the article. All the references cited in the article were also listed on the reference page. The references cited completely in relevant APA format. I would recommend this article to a colleague, as it offers detailed and well-reviewed research data about medical errors by the student nurses.
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