reasearch paper in bilogy

reasearch paper in bilogy 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 1 of 18

Introduction ➢Hormones are very important in physiological functioning, normal development and mutation of the body. ➢However, hormones may be toxic to animal in certain circumstance. ➢This may be as a result of many factors such as excessive use of synthetic hormones on livestock animals (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2017). 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 2 of 18

Introduction ➢with the increased use of veterinary services, concerns have grown regarding safety of livestock products. ➢This paper aims to examine the effect of synthetic or and endogenous hormones in the production of beef and dairy products from the cows and its impacts on human beings. 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 3 of 18


➢Use of synthetic and endogenous hormones in cattle subjects humans to health risks 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 4 of 18


➢Data was collected from published journal articles and peer-reviewed articles present in the database. ➢Various databases utilized include Ebscohost and MEDLINE, Google scholar, and science direct. ➢The resources used were published within the last five years. Own methods of data collection were also utilized during data collection. 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 5 of 18

Results Presentation There are various reasons why hormones are used in beef and dairy products. They include ➢Reducing waiting time ➢Increased milk production ➢Rapidly increasing weight of young livestock animals ➢Reduction in amount of feeds needed for an animal ➢Increased overall profitability of dairy and beef industries (Daxenberger, Ibarreta & Meyer, 2016). 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 6 of 18

Results presentation

➢Testosterone, Estradiol and progesterone are naturally occurring hormones. ➢They travel in the blood stream of animals to synchronize functions of the body and influence growth, development and reproduction. ➢ Estrogens and androgens are exogenous hormones and are given to livestock animals to enhance growth (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 7 of 18

Results Presentation

Most of the hormones found in milk are transferred through diffusion. They include ➢Androgens ➢Corticoids ➢Progesterone ➢Estrogen ➢Prolactin ➢Oxytocin (Fogelholm, Kanerva & Männistö, 2015). 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 8 of 18

Result Presentation

➢A synthetic estrogen drug, commonly referred to as diethylstilbestrol (DES) that was used in preventing miscarriages in the 1960s, was found to increase the chances of vaginal cancer among young daughters (Sharpe, Turner & Sumpter, 2018). ➢This further made the drug be banned for use. 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 9 of 18

Result Presentation ➢Multiple studies have shown that meat consumption can lead to serious chronic diseases. ➢According to World Health organization, processed meat is a leading cause of cancer (Givens, 2018). 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 10 of 18

Result Presentation

➢Consumption of red meat increases the chances of diabetes and heart diseases. ➢Red meat contains hormones that promote development of top killer diseases such as diabetes, stroke, heart attack and cancer (Service, 2018). ➢The following table shows the classification of foods that cause cancer.

Foods Probability of causing cancer

Satami Causes cancer

Sausage Causes cancer

Bacon Causes cancer

Pork Probably causes cancer 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 11 of 18

Result Presentation ➢Multiple studies conducted by independent researchers have found out that too much consumption of red meat increased the mortality rates. ➢When the research was undertaken in comparison with female individuals consuming vegetables, it was found that individuals consuming vegetables have a lower risk of mortality. 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 12 of 18

Result Presentation ➢Red meat also contains high risk of food-borne illnesses. In the United Sates, more than seventy percent of food poisoning is caused by contaminated animal products. ➢Campylobacter, salmonella, and E. Coli all contribute to about 76 million illnesses in US each year (Rath et al., 2018). 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 13 of 18

Result Presentation ➢Recently, there have been claims that high levels of estrogen could have significant effects on the level on hormones in human blood. ➢Estrogen is fundamental in several metabolic and morphological behaviors which are essential for the reproduction in the female organs (Haug, Høstmark & Harstad, 2017). ➢The following table shows the relationship between metabolic diseases and consumption of dairy products.

Dairy foods Outcome Relative Risk (95% CI)

Butter (14g/day) Type 2 diabetes 0.96 (0.93- 0. 99)

Butter (14g/day) Stroke 1.01 (0.93- 1.10)

Butter (14g/day) Cardio-metabolic disease 0.99 (0.96-1.03

Yoghurt (80 g/day) Type 2 diabetes 0.86 (0.83-0.90)

Cheese (40g/day) Stroke 0.97 (

Milk (200g/day) Stroke 0.93 (0.88-0.98) 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 14 of 18

Result Presentation

➢The research seems to agree with the initially formulated hypothesis that use of synthetic and endogenous hormones in cattle subjects’ humans to health risks (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). ➢Based on the discussion, increases meat consumption can lead to serious chronic diseases. ➢ Processed meat has been linked to cancer. Processed meet increases the chances of developing rectum and colon cancer by eighteen percent. 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 15 of 18

Conclusion ➢In conclusion, use of synthetic and endogenous hormones in cattle subjects humans to health risks. ➢Consumption of beef and dairy products with high levels of these hormones increases the chances of diabetes and heart diseases. ➢Red meat contains hormones that promote development of top killer diseases such as diabetes, stroke, heart attack and cancer. 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 16 of 18

References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (, 2015). Human

tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium Bovis–New York City, 2001- 2004. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 54(24), 605.

Daxenberger, A., Ibarreta, D., & Meyer, H. H. (2016). Possible health impact of animal estrogens in food. Apis, 109(S103), S386-S401.

Fogelholm, M., Kanerva, N., & Männistö, S. (2015). Association between red and processed meat consumption and chronic diseases: the confounding role of other dietary factors. European journal of clinical nutrition, 69(9), 1060.

Givens, D. I. (2018). Dairy foods, red meat, and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at crucial life stages. Animal, 12(8), 1709- 1721.

Haug, A., Høstmark, A. T., & Harstad, O. M. (2017). Bovine milk in human nutrition–a review. Lipids in health and disease, 6(1), 25. 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 17 of 18

References Rath, A. P., Panda, S., Pandey, R., Routray, A., & Sethy, K. (2018). Hormone residues

in milk and meat products and their public health significance. Service, R. F. (2018). New role for estrogen in cancer?. Science, 279(5357), 1631-1633. Sharpe, R. M., Turner, K. J., & Sumpter, J. P. (2018). Endocrine disruptors and testis

development. Environmental health perspectives, 106(5), A220-A221. US Department of Health and Human Services (2019) Foodborne illnesses. NIH

Publication No.-12–4730. Available at: www. Last accessed, September 24, 2019

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2017) Foods Linked to illness. Last accessed, 24 September 2019 12/5/19, 3:38 PM Page 18 of 18

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