Discussion QuestionsQn. 1.Main elements of Enlightenment thoughtThe main elements of enlightenment thought were education, reason, human experience, truth religion and the government. The traditions were challenged by authority and the right to rule. People believed that authority dominated experience. Those in authority were thought to be wiser than those who had the human experience. The enlightened rejected the concept of the divine right to rule and they justified that their position was based on their usefulness to the state.(European History/Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment 2013).

Qn.2.What things did Frederick II of Prussia and Catherine II of Russia accomplishes during their reigns that justify the title “the Great”?Frederick II of Prussia was justified as “the Great” after he declared himself a servant of state, extended education to all, and established a professional bureaucracy. He created a uniform judicial system and abolished torture. It is during his reign that Prussia innovated agriculture by using potatoes and turnips to replenish the soil. Also, Frederick established religious freedom in Prussia. 

Catherine II accomplished the title “the Great” after her reforms which were restrictions on torture, religious toleration, education for girls and the 1767 Legislative Commission, which reported to her on the state of the Russian people.(European History/Scientific Revolution and

Enlightenment 2013)

Qn.3. Discuss three events of the French revolution from 1789 to 1794 that did the most to end the old political way of doing things in France Which event had the greatest influence on France’s future?

The Explosive Summer of 1789 was the first event

France faced a financial crisis, caused by military expenditures and aristocracy, which resisted any cuts in its returns from the treasury and any taxes on its wealth in 1789. The result of this lapse of leadership was a political near-breakdown, followed by a sudden explosion of popular unrest and agitation.

The second event was the First Phase of Middle-Class Revolution

This was shortly after the march on Versailles, the Assembly achieved some political stability by declaring martial law, to be enforced by the National Guard. The most dramatic action of the Assembly occurred on the night of August 4, 1789.

The third event was the Drift towards Radicalism

This was after June 1791, when the king and his family attempted to flee the country, the Revolution drifted steadily towards radicalism.

The Jacobin republic event had the most effect on France with the growth of patriotism

(History-world 2013)

What did Napoleon accomplish in France, and what brought about his fall?

Accomplishment of Napoleon ranged from military victory, reforms in education and the judicial system with establishment of the Code Napoleon (Miss Lavelle 2013)

The fall of Napoleon was as a result of despising the people as incapable with disinterested conduct, conceited, and obsessed by the notion of equality. Further his colossal egoism, his habitual disregard of others, his jealous passion for power, his impatience, his vain untruthful boasting, his unbridled self-sufficiency and lack of moderation led to the end of his rule (France History – First French Empire 2013)

Qn.4.What was the effect on society as Europe changed from a traditional economy to an industrial economy? Were the changes positive or negative? 

How did British society address some of the changes in peoples’ lives that were brought on by industrialization?

The effect on the industrial revolution on European society was an effect of change from traditional methods of farming to modern agriculture labor-intensive economy based on farming and handicrafts to a more capital-intensive economy based on manufacturing by machines, specialized labor, and industrial factories. The changes were more positive with increase in employment, more capital accumulation, labor specialization, surplus food among others.

The British society started the formation of new social classes; there was growth of cities, population grew up and slums started developing with less housing in the cities. Hospitals and other educational institutes were seen on the rise. There were also trade unions to fight for the working conditions of the workers. (The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact on European Society 2013)

Qn. 5.There were four problems; restoring the balance of power, the containment of France, the restoration of legitimate rulers and rewarding and punishing those involved in the Napoleonic

Wars, depending on which side they had fought on. The containment of France was done by strengthening the states and territories surrounding France, especially those which had been previously over-run by the Grand Armeé. The restoration of the legitimate rulers was resolved by restoration of Bourbon dynasty of Spain, an ally to the Great Powers against Napoleon, only seemed natural. Rewarding and punishing of those involved in the Napoleonic Wars, depending on which side they had fought on were rewarded through division of territories (Kristian Ola 2013).

Qn. 6.The type of conflict that Europeans expected after world-war 1 was a military conflict between nations. The kind of war that really took place was a war of power and to gain popularity. The reason is most European countries had experienced industrial revolution and they had surplus resources to use on military expenditure.

Qn. 7 Factors that made possible Hitler’s diplomatic and military successes between 1933 and 1941 were,European states and public opinion were still haunted by 1914-1918 war.

Hitler’s diplomacy was seen as reasonable by most diplomats except for the French.

Hitler’s military war overwhelmed Europe. (asu.edu 2013)

Qn. 8

How the ideas of glasnost and perestroika helped to bring about the end of the Soviet Union.

Glasnost and perestroika introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985, and helped bring about the end of the Soviet Union by 1991.

Glasnost ended the strict censorship of the 1960s and 1970s, and encouraged political dissidents and others who openly criticized the one-party rule of the Communists.

Perestroika upset the centralized planning of the economy, which had put more emphasis on developing industry, science, and agriculture than on meeting the demands of consumers, who turned instead to the black market. (asu.edu 2013)

Conclusion

The questions were all answered.

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