Healthcare Ethics

Healthcare Ethics
Article I
The cultural, spiritual, and personal values, which contribute to the world view and philosophy of nursing, are nursing process, caring, nursing practice, holism, and wellness. These values impact as well as shape my nursing practice in some approaches in the way the nursing profession is practiced. However, from the fact that nursing is regarded as a collaborative practice, a person is supposed to discern that it consists of association with patients and persons from other disciplines. For that reason, confidence, obligation, consideration, ability, and integrity, caring indication, have to be practiced in the nursing practice. As a nurse, I am supposed to be responsible and accountable for nursing acts and findings. Wellness care fails to result in opportunities for nurses to levy their system of values on clients or patients. It remains a just an approved behaviour change, which is targeted at the achievement of absolute levels of wellness for patients (Holland, 2010).
In nursing practice, values are described as beliefs of nurses on the well-being of consumers or the acts they are needed to perform when taking care of a patient. Moreover, it can as well be defined as notions, which are supposed to be established by nurses throughout the caring process of patients. Values are important in the nursing field. They help in the development of wide-ranging decisions in various situations. On the other hand, ethics is thought the process that nurses require in the balancing of shared values along with individual, advantages and significances and basic accuracies from guiding codes to discover an ethically acceptable resolution when they encounter an ethical dilemma. It can also be described as the central nursing practices’ regulations. They are major principles, which aid nurses to practice in an acceptable way when executing their responsibilities. Ethics assist nurses in the provision of the preeminent healthcare to patients. This is because of the set rules that need to be taken into consideration during nursing process. Morals in nursing are referred to as behavioural habits, which are founded on right and wrong standards for helping nurses in the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and acts flanked by the good along with bad ones (Fry et al., 2010). My personal philosophy, values, as well as a worldview, may perhaps conflict with my duty to practice, in some ways creating an ethical dilemma. According to ethics, a patient is entitled to life; therefore he/she is supposed to be provided with entirely needed measures. I consider that an individual merely has a right to normal life thus being supported by the machine to live should not be encouraged.
Nursing concentrates on morals well as ethical insinuations of research, technology, and decision-making in the healthcare. Apart from what many consider the nurses’ motivation continuous regardless of the fights that accompany the nursing field and from spiritual impacts, practical or ethical experiences. I consider that nursing ethics are significant just for the reason that they aid nurses in the provision of quality patient care. Dilemmas manifest when available options fail to cause tolerable outcomes, and ultimate decision leads to adverse results. Even though morals and ethics are to be adhered to by nurses, many ethical dilemmas that I encounter are supposed to be dealt with by nurse’s personal opinions (Blais, 2015). For example, consider a Para-two mother has one of her child diagnosed with cancer at the same time as the other one is the simply way of offering life-sustaining treatment. If I encounter such dilemma, I would spare the other child who well and seek medical help from other healthcare workers for the other sick child.
Article II
Medical and Moral Ethics of Transgender Surgery in Children
Gender remains a human social organization of distinction by sex for conducts, roles, features, looks, and identities that shape cultural connotations and customs regarding both gender and sex on human physiques. Everybody has an intuitive understanding of their sex identity. Most individual‘s gender identity remains according to their assigned sexual orientation, but most people regard their identity as a dissonant with their biological sex. However, this the reason why transsexual matters along with sexual reassignment surgery are getting a tremendous agreement of consideration and support in the schools, media, administration, and in health specialists in the present day. A small but rising number of younger children and teenagers who ponder that they were born within a correct sex are receiving backing from parents and physicians who provide them with sex-changing interventions. This has remained an issue, which raises ethical queries, and some professionals urge care to be taken in the management of children with hormones and drugs, and even transgender surgery (The Associated Press, 2012).
Doctors typically need that whichever transgender person who needs a therapeutic intervention be evaluated first by a psychiatric healthcare provider. A note may be demanded that states that the patient’s mental health would recover from a gender construction. In the last 2-3 years, numerous medical associations have reported on the medical requirement of transitional transgender care. Despite the fact that still rather stigmatizing, a gender dysphoria diagnosis warrants that more transgender children services will be ensured. The permissible position of children and grown-ups poses perplexing challenges for courts globally (Boghanz, 2015). However, with public cognizance of a snowballing number of individuals undertaking transsexual transformation, this need will likewise rise. About a decade ago, the European Federal Human Rights Court, given a case conveyed before it from the UK maintained the postoperative rights of transsexuals to be renowned as individuals of their postoperative sex as well as to get the whole rights linked to their attained sex. It is factual with comparable verdicts in other nations; the U.S.as well is supposed to be familiar with the human rights incorporated and provide total rights to those people with a transsexual disorder. Furthermore, for the reason that the change, particularly in childhood as well as adolescence, is capable of being lengthened besides surgery is progressively unnecessarily the last resort, it remains far improved, instead of accommodating obsolete perceptions, to welcome advanced methodical considerations of identity progress as well as to identify an extensive array of gender disparity as a certainty of the human form (TAP, 2012).
Physicians prescribing medications (in this case puberty blockers) to children with transgender give reasons that they give gender dysphoric children the right to feel they are bearing the wrong identity. However, what makes this complex, no investigation is administered to the child to diagnose distress concerning their gender identity that shows the child will grow to be transgender. Some researches studies, which fail to exist, recommend that gender dysphoria continues in a small number of children, but then they consisted of precisely few children besides were done typically overseas (Colene, 2011).
Presently, transgender is categorized as a mental condition. Therefore, many persons may disregard the dispute for transgender surgery basing on the fact surgery is not supposed to be employed for conditions, which are mainly psychiatric. Consideration of surgery as a likely therapeutic choice for transgender children would be medicalization of gender alteration. Therefore, with a medical resolution to a non-medical condition is wasteful of valuable medical resources and completely irrational (Colene, 2011).
Article III
Ethics is a complex subject and is filled with conflicting views. This is because of ethics borders on the laws of morality, the determinant of which varies with every perspective that is taken by each person.  Ethics is a principle of deciding what is right or wrong, a moral conception that is affected by oneself, others and the society as a whole. Ethical boundaries have no proper lengths from a singular perspective and may vary based upon such factors as culture, religion, background, society, etcetera (Barnes, 1976).
Virtue ethics as posited by Aristotle was the practice of making decisions that brought out the best in a situation. Christopher Taylor in Skorupski (2010) quotes Aristotle in defining virtue ethics and notes that it remains impossible to be good in a sound sense with no practical understanding (Skorupski, 2010). Virtues are dependent on one’s character which influences choices made. Virtues require practical wisdom which in essence means making a choice based on an assessment of a situation and situational analysis then making a personal judgment of what is wrong or right based on the situation. Virtue ethics depicts the rationality of a decision made, whether morally acceptable or not, legally correct or not. Frankena (1963) also contributes to Aristotle’s virtue ethics by explaining the underlying meaning of eudemonia and translating it to happiness. Aristotle’s definition of happiness differs from the modern perspective of being happy; it is a state of practicing virtue in all a person’s actions to enhance their outlook from a moral perspective and aid in the formation of a moral character (Frankena, 1963).

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