compare the main healthcare-related components of the Rio Policy Statement (as found in the article, For a Global Agenda or Post Millennium Development Goals) to the health components of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030.
March 3, 2019
Paper -Music And Influence
March 3, 2019

Deadline Today 9am New York/ Eastern Standard Time Zone

Deadline Today 9am New York/ Eastern Standard Time Zone


Prayer in Public Schools

Sara Lance

GEN103: Information Literacy

Instructor Smoak

April 15, 2018

Fill in the title that you’ve chosen

for your paper, your name, your

instructor’s name and the date.

Be sure that you put the title of your paper in

the header. Notice that the header on the first

page includes the words “Running head:”.

The page


should be

at the top

right of

each page.


Research Question: How have the courts weighed factors regarding the legality of prayer in

American public schools?

Scholarly Article 1


Lain, C. B. (2015). God, civic virtue, and the American way: reconstructing Engel. Stanford

Law Review, 67(3), 479-555. doi: 10.31228/

Annotation: This scholarly article focuses on the Supreme Court case Engel v Vitale (1963),

which set the precedent that state-sponsored prayer in school is unconstitutional. The author

argues that while the decision was originally seen as, and continues to be seen as, protecting

religious minorities from being forced to participate in the religious practices of the religious

majority, the Supreme Court Justices did not view it that way during the decision-making

process. Rather, the Supreme Court Justices took into account demographic changes (a

significant increase in the Catholic population) as well as cultural changes (a substantial decrease

in anti-Semitism after the Holocaust) that had created a more pluralistic society; they did not see

themselves as protecting a religious minority but as recognizing that there was not a prayer, no

matter now bland and generic, that could avoid offending some parties. In addition, the Supreme

Court Justices looked at the plain text of the First Amendment and determined that requiring

public school students to recite a state-written prayer was clearly endorsing religion. There was

little disagreement on these points as indicated by the 6-1 decision, with one vacancy on the

court and one justice too ill to participate in deliberations. The author used a variety of sources as

evidence for this article, including the text of this and other Supreme Court decisions, quotes

from an interview with Justice Black, many newspaper and magazine articles from the time

Your final research question from the Week 1 assignment

belongs here.

The APA-formattted reference for your scholarly article goes here. If you

need help with formatting, visit the Writing Center.




here. Be

sure to

include all of

the elements

outlined in




Be sure to





that the


used to




period as well as historical and legal books and journal articles. Many of the sources that I’ve

read mentioned the Engel v. Vitale decision and indicated its importance to this issue but this

journal article provides detailed explanation of why and how the case began as well as the

reasoning behind the decision, backed up a variety of historical and legal sources.

The author thoroughly supported her points throughout the article with extensive sources.

In addition to the text of the decision and an interview with Justice Black, the author also used

the personal papers of Justice Black to support her argument. This article provides relatively

current information, having been published in 2015. A significant portion of the evidence

supporting the thesis from the original court case in the early 1960s but the author also used

more contemporary legal, scholarly, and news sources, all the way up to the year before this

article was published. The author has significant authority on this topic as a Professor of Law

and Associate Dean at the University of Richmond School of Law. In addition, this article was

published by the Stanford Law Review, which is well-known and well-respected as a scholarly

law journal. The most obvious limitation of this article is that it focuses on the Engel v Vitale

ruling; a number of other court rulings, both by the Supreme Court and by lower courts, are

relevant to my research question but are not addressed in this article. This journal article

answers my research question by explaining the reasoning behind the Engel v Vitale ruling,

which set the original precedent by which other religion in school cases were decided. It provides

specific information from the ruling and the historical context in which the ruling was made as

well as information about the public and media reaction to the ruling.



detail in



to fully



sources and

explain how

they fit into




Please notice that the header should be

changed to match your title.


Scholarly Article 2


Warnick, B. R. (2012). Student rights to religious expression and the special characteristics of

schools. Educational Theory, 62(1), 59-74. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.2011.00435.x

Annotation: In this scholarly peer-reviewed article, Warnick examines the difficulty in balancing

two different parts of the First Amendment of the Constitution, the Establishment Clause with

the Free Exercise Clause, to show why it is difficult to determine what religious activities are

permissible for students in the public school environment. The Establishment Clause prevents

any part of the government from establishing or endorsing religion while the Free Exercise

Clause guarantees individuals the right to freely engage in religious activities. Within the public

school environment, students have the right to engage in student-initiated prayer or other

religious activity. Student-initiated religious activity must be accommodated by school officials

and it is often accommodated by allowing the use of school property and other resources, which

may give the appearance of official endorsement of the religious activity. This can create

difficulty in determining when student-initiated religious activity has crossed the line into

unconstitutional activity. The author also argues that school are unique areas in American

society because education is compulsory, they serve a range of ages, and because students are

expected to gain a wide range of competencies, eventually becoming capable members of society

who understand how ideas (both religious and secular) function to produce political outcomes.

These three elements that make schools a special place in American society contribute to the

difficulty with balancing the Free Exercise Clause with the Establishment Clause and make the

The title of your article should be written like sentence with only

the first word and proper nouns capitalized. Also remember to

italicize the name of the journal.


to fully

explain the



and the


that he/she

uses to




issue particularly controversial. Warnick used many scholarly sources as references. He cited

numerous education, legal, and philosophy journal articles and books to support his points as

well as relevant Supreme Court cases. This article is different from many of the sources I’ve read

because it explains why the issue of religious expression in schools is complicated, both from the

viewpoint of allowing students the freedom of expression in a constitutional way and from the

viewpoint of ensuring that students receive a complete educational experience.

In this article, the author argues that the issue of prayer and religious activity in public

school is nuanced and complex; he supports that thesis well by citing many educational, legal

and philosophical sources that validated each element of his argument. The article was

published in 2012, so it is relatively current. The author, Bryan R. Warnick, has authority on this

issue as professor of Philosophy of Education at Ohio State University. The journal, Educational

Theory, was founded in 1951 and is a peer-reviewed journal so this article is credible. The

article is interesting but limited in usefulness to me because the factors that courts consider is not

the main focus. Instead, the author discussed balancing the Free Exercise Clause and the Free

Establishment Clause as part of a larger discussion of the complexities of prayer and religious

activities in public school. This article answers my research question by explaining how the two

clauses of the First Amendment that are relevant to the issue of religious activity in public

school, the Free Exercise Clause and the Establishment Clause, apply in a school setting and how

they can be difficult to reconcile.



Discuss the


and currency

in your


as you

explain the

credibility of




Haiman, F. S. (2003). Religious Expression and the American Constitution. East Lansing:

Michigan State University Press. Retrieved from Ashford Library eBook Collection.

Annotation: This eBook examines many different facets of the First Amendment of the

Constitution, generally focusing on how it has been applied in court cases related to religion in

American society and the evolution of First Amendment cases throughout American history. Of

particular relevance to my research question is chapter four, “Religious Expression in Public

Schools.” This chapter is broken into six parts, covering prayer in school and school-sponsored

events, the Pledge of Allegiance, use of school resources for religious meetings outside of school

hours, evolution curriculum, school officials’ religious expression, and censorship of library and

curricular resources. The author discusses many Supreme Court and lower court cases, arguing

that schools, because they are viewed as shaping young minds, are a particular focus of conflict

over the proper church-state balance. The courts have endeavored to both protect the rights of

students and faculty to freely exercise their chosen religion while also protect against state

coercion to engage in a specific religion (or any religion) or state endorsement of religion. In

general, the goal of the courts has been for the state to be neutral in regard to religion and neither

favor or disfavor either a specific religious sect or religious practice over nonpractice. The

author supported his points in this book by citing and referencing Supreme Court and lower court

cases, media reports, and scholarly legal articles. This article is similar to other sources that I

read on this topic in that it discusses some of the same cases and made some similar points.

However, it also discussed many lower court cases that were not mentioned in other sources and

it addressed issues beyond prayer and student religious activities in school, like religious

expression of school officials, censorship of library and curriculum materials, and the teaching of


The title of the eBook should be italicized.

For the

eBook, you

may choose

to focus on

a specific


that is of



to your

topic. Be

sure to


explain that



and discuss





evidence in




The thesis of the relevant chapter of this eBook is best summarized by saying that the

courts have worked to balance the rights enumerated in the First Amendment on various

religious issues that find their way into public schools. The author supported that thesis well by

exploring those various topics and explaining how court rulings have evolved over time, building

on precedent. Although the author cited some scholarly secondary sources, the majority of

sources cited and referenced are court cases, illustrating the focus of the author on discussing

court rulings. This eBook is less current than other sources chosen for this project, having been

published in 2003. However, it is still current enough for this topic and contains significant

useful information. The author, Franklyn S. Haiman, was Emeritus Professor of Communication

Studies at Northwestern University. He wrote additional scholarly works on the First

Amendment and a national award for freedom of expression was named in his honor. It would

appear that he was an authority on this issue. The eBook was published by the Michigan State

University Press, which indicates that this is a scholarly book and that it is a credible source.

The limitation of this source is primarily that it is older and so does not include any cases or

scholarship written since 2003. In addition, the author largely used court cases as sources; while

there are some scholarly secondary sources cited and referenced, there are clearly fewer

scholarly secondary sources used in this source than in other scholarly sources used for this

project. While this source provides a thorough history of the evolution of the history of religion

in public school cases, it does not place them in the context of the scholarly discussion as well as

other sources in the project. This eBook addresses my research question by looking at issues

beyond just prayer in public school. By examining other issues that fall under the First

Amendment legal umbrella, it is easier to see how the courts have worked to find a balance

between the Free Expression and Establishment Clauses. In addition, because this eBook also

No source

can cover

all aspects

of a topic

so they all

have some





where the


might be



discusses lower court cases, it was easier to understand how the precedent set by the Supreme

Court cases affected subsequent cases that came before these courts.

Be sure to include the transcript from your

Library Chat session below!


Library Chat Transcript:

Copy and Paste transcript from the Library Chat here.

The post Deadline Today 9am New York/ Eastern Standard Time Zone appeared first on superioressaypapers.


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