Critical thinkers do not make assumptions
about how the world works.
17. Biases are assumptions that keep us
from considering evidence fairly.
18. Guiding our behaviors on “gut
feelings” is an important aspect of critical thinking.
19. An argument by anecdote occurs when a
person generalizes from a personal experience.
20. Critical thinkers come up with
alternative explanations for research findings.
thinkers generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic at hand as
possible before settling on the most likely one.
22. Critical thinkers prefer explanations
that account for the most evidence while making the fewest assumptions.
23. Critical thinking is a process, not an
24. Psychology has been a science for more
than 1,000 years.
25. Psychology became a formal discipline
in the sixteenth century.
26. The forerunners of modern psychology
depended heavily on casual observation.
27. The forerunners of modern psychology
depended heavily on empirical research.
28. Scholars of the past relied too
heavily on empirical evidence to understand human behavior.
29. Scholars of the past who wanted to
understand human behavior relied on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases.
30. Because they relied on anecdotes
rather than experiments, the forerunners of modern psychology were always wrong in their description of